Situated to the east of Cukurova, Osmaniye province has a history of thousands of years. History of this region dates back to the earliest known periods.
The region, in which Osmaniye province is situated witnessed the existence of such states as the Hittite, Assyria, Persian, Ancient Greek, Roman and Byzantine and some tribes from the early ages on. Afterwards Ummayyad and Abbasis lived on this land. With the conquest of Anatolia by the Turks in 1080, Turkish tribes came to this region. The region has become home to Turks since the beginning of 12th century. It became a province with the proclamation of the Republic and Osmaniye, which continued its administrative structure as a district in 1933, regained its status as a province on 24 October 1996.